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“Idealism Without Illusions”




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“Supplement your older students’ study of politics with these readings.  Great for practice [in] identifying worldview, underlying assumptions, and logical fallacies.”
– Leigh Bortins, author of The Core: Teaching Your Child the Foundations of Classical Education (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), from her blog, 16 June 2010

 first posted 17 April 2010; last revised 5 July 2011

  Fifty Contemporary
Political Ideologies

  by Mark Satin

I thought you’d enjoy seeing my list of the 50 most significant modern and contemporary political ideologies. Students and teachers may find it especially valuable (it worked well in classes I guest-taught for Prof. Americ Azevedo in the Peace and Conflict Studies Department at UC-Berkeley over the 2009-11 academic years.  I stated that my lectures were about "life and political ideologies" . . . a broader topic even than what this page encompasses!).

Along with each ideology below, I’ve suggested three readings.  Most are by co-creators or advocates of the ideology at issue (please remember this!), and nearly all were written in our 21st century.  All are freely available on the Web -- just click on the blue titles below.

Needless to say, no reading is – or can be – perfectly representative of a political ideology, which is typically the construction of a myriad of scholars and activists and is anyway never finally set in stone; hopefully, each reading here will prompt you to dig deeper in the literature.

I constructed this list, aka my “global ideology map,” out of my experiences as an activist and political journalist.  (Over the years I have engaged with exponents of nearly every ideology below, and have made substantial contributions to three ideologies: radical centrism, through my book Radical Middle, Basic Books, 2004; transformationalism, through my book New Age Politics, Dell Publishing Co., 1979; and deep-green ecologism, as designated co-drafter – with Charlene Spretnak – of the original version of the U.S. Green Party’s foundational statement, “Ten Key Values.”)

Feel free to use this list in any way you like.  I am using it as the basis for a book I’m writing (on the disintegration of modern and contemporary political ideologies and the future of social change), so please, if you do make use of this list, give me credit or cite or link to this Web page.  Thanks in advance, and enjoy!

P.S. Please feel free to suggest arguably more significant ideologies to me, or to recommend arguably more pertinent readings.  I can be reached at msatin (at) mindspring (dot) com.

PP.S. Also in this series:



A. Why Ideology?: Slavoj Zizek, “20 Years of CollapseNew York Times, 9 Nov. 2009

B. Why Political Theory?: Fred Dallmayr, “Political Theory and Civilizational Dialogue,” Chap. 1 [pp. 3-6] in Dallmayr & Abbas Manoochehri, eds., Civilizational Dialogue and Political Thought, 2007

C. Human Nature, I (quasi-tragic vision): Steven Pinker interviewed by John Brockman, “A Biological Understanding of Human Nature,” Edge Foundation website, 9 Sept. 2002

D. Human Nature, II (blue-sky vision): Dacher Keltner, "The Evolution of Compassion," Altruists International website, 29 Sept. 2006



A. Understanding Ideology: Manfred Steger, “Introduction: Political Ideologies and Social Imaginaries,” pp. 1-5 in Steger, The Rise of the Global Imaginary, 2008 [after you click on this link, you’ll need to type “Social Imaginaries” into the search box]

B. Creating Ideology, I (bottom-up): Lawrence Goodwyn, “The Alliance Develops a Movement Culture,” pp. 20-35 in Goodwyn, The Populist Moment, 1978

C. Creating Ideology, II (young turks): Todd Gitlin, “‘Name the System,’” pp. 171-88 in Gitlin, The Sixties, rev. 1993 [after you click on this link, you’ll need to type “Name the System” into the search box]

D. Creating Ideology, III (top-down): Cheng Chen, “Post-Communist Russia’s Search for a New Regime Ideology,” conference paper, American Political Science Association, Aug. 2009 [after you click on this link, you’ll need to click on the box marked "One-Click Download" and then on the box marked “Chicago Booth”]



1. Left Anarchism (communalist polity): Murray Bookchin, “The Communalist ProjectHarbinger, 1 Sep. 2002 [now concluding chapter in Bookchin, Social Ecology and Communalism, 2007]

1. Left Anarchism (participatory economy): Michael Albert & Chris Spannos, “Parecon Today,” ZNet website, 27 Apr. 2006

1. Left Anarchism (oppositional worldview): Ward Churchill, “Some People Push Back,” KERSPLEBEDEB website, c. Oct. 2001

2. Anarcho-Primitivism (emphasis on psychology): Chellis Glendinning, “Technology, Trauma, and the Wild,” in Theodore Roszak et al., eds., Ecopsychology, 1995

2. Anarcho-Primitivism (emphasis on anthropology): John Zerzan interviewed by G Sampath, “Primitive Green,” Daily News and Analysis website (Mumbai), 20 Dec. 2009

2. Anarcho-Primitivism (emphasis on lived experience): Derrick Jensen, pp. ix-xii & 1-23 in Jensen, Endgame, Vol. I: The Problem of Civilization, 2006



Capitalism in General (anatomy): William Baumol et al., “Capitalism: The Different Types,” Chap. 4 [pp. 60-93, pdf pp. 72-105] in Baumol et al., Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism, 2007

Capitalism in General (spirit): Jim Collins, “Good to GreatFast Company, Oct. 2001 [adapted from Collins, Good to Great, 2001]

Capitalism in General (justification by a liberal Nobel laureate): Edmund Phelps, “Does Capitalism Have a Future?,” Project Syndicate website (Czech Republic), 1 Dec. 2008

Minimally Regulated Capitalism: see especially X. LIBERTARIANISM below

Moderately Regulated Capitalism: see especially III. CONSERVATISM below

Highly Regulated Capitalism: see especially IX. LIBERALISM below

3. State Capitalism (three enthusiastic cheers): reader comments #2, 3, 7, 13, 15, 19, 27, 32, 34, 40, and 42 under the caption “What Is the Future of State Capitalism?,” Harvard Business School Working Knowledge website, 2 May 2008

3. State Capitalism (two informed cheers): Mark Beeson, “Developmental States in East Asia Asian Perspective, vol. 33, no. 2, 2009

3. State Capitalism (one grudging cheer): Ian Bremmer, “State Capitalism Comes of Age,” orig. Foreign Affairs, May 2009

4. Creative Capitalism (aspirational): Tachi Kiuchi & Bill Shireman, pp. v-xi & 1-13 in Kiuchi & Shireman, What We Learned in the Rainforest: Business Lessons from Nature, 2002; Bill Gates, “A New Approach to Capitalism in the 21st Century,” speech at the World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland, 24 Jan. 2008; and Muhammad Yunus, "Halving Poverty by 2015," speech at Commonwealth Institute, London, 11 Mar. 2003

4. Creative Capitalism (running a company): John Mackey, “Conscious Capitalism: Creating a New Paradigm for Business,” Whole Earth Market CEO’s Blog, 9 Nov. 2006, pdf version HERE [now Chap. 4 in Michael Strong, ed., Be the Solution, 2009]

4. Creative Capitalism (husbanding natural resources): Amory Lovins, Hunter Lovins & Paul Hawken, “A Road Map for Natural CapitalismHarvard Business Review, May 1999 [adapted from same authors, Natural Capitalism, 1999]



5. Free-Market Conservatism (economic aspect): Guy Sorman, “Economics Does Not LieCity Journal, Summer 2008

5. Free-Market Conservatism (cultural aspect): Steven Malanga, “Whatever Happened to the Work Ethic?City Journal, Summer 2009

5. Free Market Conservatism (visionary aspect): Peter Huber, “Techno-OptimismForbes, 25 Feb. 2008 [exuberant]; or Matt Ridley, “We’ve Never Had It So Good – and It’s All Thanks to ScienceGuardian (Britain), 3 Apr. 2003 [more measured]

6. Traditionalist Conservatism (social issues): Amy Wax, “Mothers AlonePolicy Review, Jan. 2009

6. Traditionalist Conservatism (foreign policy issues): Bill Kauffman, “Introduction: I'll Just Stay Here,” pp. 1-10 in Kauffman, Ain't My America: The Long. Noble History of Anti-War Conservatism ... , 2008

6. Traditionalist Conservatism (existential issues): Rod Dreher, pp. 1-26 in Crunchy Cons: The New Conservative Counterculture, 2006 [some pages are missing from the linked text, but that’s OK]

7. Neoconservatism (sunny side): Irving Kristol, “The Neoconservative PersuasionWeekly Standard, 25 Aug. 2003

7. Neoconservatism (combative side): Norman Podhoretz, “The Case for Bombing IranCommentary, Jun. 2007

7. Neoconservatism (second generation): Charles Krauthammer, “Decline Is a ChoiceWeekly Standard, 19 Oct. 2009

8. Progressive Conservatism (economic issues): Reihan Salam & Ross Douthat, “The Party of Sam’s ClubWeekly Standard, 14 Nov. 2005

8. Progressive Conservatism (social issues): Theodore Olson, “The Conservative Case for Gay MarriageNewsweek, 9 Jan. 2010

8. Progressive Conservatism (Britain): Phillip Blond. “Rise of the Red ToriesProspect (Britain), 28 Feb. 2009

9. Guided Democracy (view from Singapore's founding prime minister): Lee Kuan Yew interviewed by Fareed Zakaria, “Culture Is Destiny,” Lee Kuan Yew website, orig. Foreign Affairs, Mar. 1994

9. Guided Democracy (views from various ruling-party members): Lee Hsien Loong, speech at the Singapore Perspectives conference, Singapore, 25 Jan. 2010; Michael Teo, “The Singapore ModelGuardian (Britain), 15 Jul. 2008, and Xu Kaixian, "That Essential Journey," People's Action Party website (Singapore), Jul. 2009

9. Guided Democracy (views from the West): Mike Royko, "Readers Get 'Behind' Flogging of Vandal," orig. New York Daily News, 30 Mar. 1994; and Sholto Byrnes, “The Price of FreedomGuardian (Britain), 17 Jul. 2008



10. Creative Federalism (Federalist Society perspective): John McGinnis, “The Federalist Approach to the First AmendmentHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Winter 2008

10. Creative Federalism (esp. India): Rajeev Bhargava, "India's Model," openDemocracy website, 3 Nov. 2004

10. Creative Federalism (esp. Canada & Europe): Will Kymlicka, “Multiculturalism and Minority Rights,” European Centre for Minority Issues paper, 2002

11. Localism (political theory): David Hess, pp. 1-11 [pdf pp. 3-13] in “Introduction” and Hess, pp. 50-65 [pdf pp. 30-45] in Chap. 1, “Global Problems and Localist Solutions,” in Hess, Localist Movements in a Global Economy, 2009

11. Localism (economic theory): Michael Shuman, “Going Local: New Opportunities for Community Economics,” speech at the annual meeting of the Community Land Trust of the Southern Berkshires, Great Barrington MA, 18 Jan. 2002 [summarizing Shuman, Going Local, 2000, and same author, The Small-Mart Revolution, 2006]

11. Localism (the human dimension): Bill Kauffman, Part I & Conclusion in Kauffman, “Back to BataviaCrooked Lake Review, May 1991 [now Chap. 1 in Kauffman, Dispatches from the Muckdog Gazette, 2002]

12. Deep Decentralism (hope from Bangladesh): Bill McKibben, “An Alternative to ProgressMother Jones, May 2001

12. Deep Decentralism (hope from Oaxaca): Gustavo Esteva interviewed by Nic Paget-Clarke, "The Society of the Different," In Motion, 8 Apr. 2006 [see esp. parts 1 & 3]

12. Deep Decentralism (hope from Vermont): Kirkpatrick Sale, “The Logic of Secession,” Middlebury Institute paper, Nov. 2007



13. Bright-Green Ecologism (exuberant): Ross Robertson, “A Brighter Shade of GreenEnlightenNext, Oct. 2007

13. Bright-Green Ecologism (candid): Mark Horowitz, “Two Environmentalists Anger Their BrethrenWired, 25 Sep. 2007 [for context]; and Ted Nordhaus & Michael Shellenberger, “The End of Magical Climate ThinkingForeign Policy, 13 Jan. 2010

13. Bright-Green Ecologism (wrenching): Stewart Brand, “We Are as Gods and Have To Get Good at It,” Edge Foundation website, 20 Aug. 2009

14. Deep-Green Ecologism (stress on eco-politics): Vandana Shiva, “Introduction: Principles of Earth Democracy,” pp. 1-11 in Shiva, Earth Democracy, 2006

14. Deep-Green Ecologism (stress on eco-economics): Bill McKibben, “Reversal of FortuneMother Jones, Mar. 2007 [adapted from McKibben, Deep Economy, 2007]

14. Deep-Green Ecologism (stress on eco-values): Fritjof Capra & Hazel Henderson, “Qualitative Growth,” Institute of Chartered Accountants booklet (Britain), Oct. 2009



15a. Racialism / White Nationalism (polite): Samuel Francis, “The Return of the RepressedOccidental Quarterly, Fall 2005

15a. Racialism / White Nationalism (not so polite): Jared Taylor, “The Racial RevolutionAmerican Renaissance, May 1999 [now lead essay in George McDaniel, ed., A Race Against Time, 2001]

15b. Racialism / Black Nationalism (polite): Randall Robinson, “Jewel,” Chap. 1 in Robinson, Quitting America: The Departure of a Black Man from His Native Land, 2004

15b. Racialism / Black Nationalism (blunt): Malik Shabazz interviewed by Ashahed Muhammad, “Exclusive Interview with Attorney Malik Zulu Shabazz," Truth Establishment Institute website, c. Feb. 2005

16. Neopatrimonialism (quasi-defense by academics): Anne Pitcher et al., boxes #1-2 & 17-22 in same authors, “Rethinking Patrimonialism and Neopatrimonialism in Africa,” orig. African Studies Review, Apr. 2009

16. Neopatrimonialism (quasi-defense by aid workers): Tim Kelsall & David Booth, pp. 1-11 & 26-27 [pdf pp. 3-13 & 28-29] in same authors, “Developmental Patrimonialism?,” Overseas Development Institute paper (Britain), Jul. 2010

16. Neopatrimonialism (spirited defense by beneficiary): Adam Bellow, “In Praise of NepotismAtlantic, July 2003

17. Survivalism (young people in Philly): Elijah Anderson, “The Code of the StreetsAtlantic, May 1994 [adapted from what eventually became Anderson, Code of the Street, 1999]

17. Survivalism (adults in Chicago): Sudhir Venkatesh, pp. ix-xix and 1-20 in Venkatesh, Off the Books, 2006 [n.b.: some pages are missing]

17. Survivalism (favela-dwellers in Rio de Janeiro): Jon Lee Anderson, “Gangland,” orig. New Yorker, 5 Oct. 2009

18. Conspiracism (left attacks right): David Ray Griffin, “9/11: Time for a Second Look,” speech at Boston University, 11 Apr. 2009 [n.b.: this is a video webcast.  If you’d prefer a written version, see Griffin, “9/11: Time for a Second Look,” Muslim-Jewish-Christian Alliance for 9/11 Truth website, 15 May 2009]

18. Conspiracism (right attacks left): Timothy Ball interviewed by Bill Steigerwald, “A Skeptic’s Take on Global WarmingHuman Events, 14 Feb. 2007

18. Conspiracism (left attacks left): Michael Barker, “Sharp Reflection Warranted: Nonviolence in the Service of Imperialism,” Swans Commentary website, 30 Jun. 2008



19. Liberal Feminism (equity-focused): Camille Paglia, “Feminism Past and PresentArion magazine, Spring 2008

19. Liberal Feminism (care-focused): Rosemarie Tong & Nancy Williams, sections 2.1 and 2.2 in Tong & Williams, “Feminist Ethics,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website, 4 May 2009

19. Liberal Feminism (partnership-focused): Cathy Young, “Out With the Old and Out With the New,” Salon website, 26 Jan. 2000 [adapted from Young, Ceasefire!, 1999]

20. Socialist Feminism (economic): Ariel Levy, “Lift and SeparateNew Yorker, 16 Nov. 2009

20. Socialist Feminism (trans-economic): Susan Faludi, “Preface to the 15th Anniversary Edition,” pp. ix-xvi in Faludi, Backlash, 2006 ed. [n.b.: the two least significant pages are missing]

20. Socialist Feminism (postcolonial): Chandra Talpede Mohanty, “‘Under Western Eyes’ RevisitedSigns, Winter 2003

21a. Radical Feminism / Visionary (emphasis on oppression): Catharine MacKinnon interviewed by Catherine Albertini & Emily Blake, “They Haven’t Crushed Me YetSisyphe (France), 21 Sep. 2005

21a. Radical Feminism / Visionary (emphasis on possibilities): Riane Eisler, “Roadmap to a New EconomicsTikkun, Nov. 2009

21b. Radical Feminism / Ecofeminist (overview): Laura Hobgood-Oster, “Ecofeminism: Historic and International Evolution,” University of Florida faculty website, 8 Aug. 2002 [now in Bron Taylor, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, 2005]

21b. Radical Feminism / Ecofeminist (people’s-eye view): Starhawk, “The Vision of the City,” Starhawk's Home Page website, Nov. 2007 [adapted & updated from Starhawk, The Fifth Sacred Thing, 1993]

22. Third-Wave Feminism (emphasis on family): Rebecca Walker, “How My Mother’s Fanatical Views Tore Us ApartDaily Mail (London), 23 May 2008

22. Third-Wave Feminism (emphasis on complexity): Jennifer Baumgardner, “Abortion Evolution,” Abortion Conversation Project website, 2005

22. Third-Wave Feminism (emphasis on integrity): Wendy Shalit, pp. xv-xxv & 3-20 in Shalit, The Good Girl Revolution, 2008, orig. Girls Gone Mild, 2007 [n.b.: some pages are missing]



23. Market Globalism (top-down approach): Samuel Palmisano, “The Globally Integrated EnterpriseForeign Affairs, May 2006

23. Market Globalism (bottom-up approach): C.K. Prahalad & Stuart Hart, “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramidstrategy+business, first quarter 2002 [anticipating Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, 2006]; and Hernando de Soto, “The Mystery of CapitalFinance & Development, Mar. 2001 [adapted from Chap. 3 of de Soto, The Mystery of Capital, 2001]

23. Market Globalism (investment-climate approach): Martin Wolf, “Globalization and Interdependence,” United Nations General Assembly address, 31 Aug. 2004 [summarizing Wolf, Why Globalization Works, 2004]

24. Cosmopolitan Globalism (world-order emphasis): Gareth Evans, “A Personal Journey,” pp. 1-7 in Evans, The Responsibility to Protect, 2008

24. Cosmopolitan Globalism (anti-poverty emphasis): Jeffrey Sachs, “The Development ChallengeForeign Affairs, Mar. 2005 [adapted from Sachs, The End of Poverty, 2005]; and William Easterly, “A Modest ProposalWashington Post Book World, 13 Mar. 2005

24. Cosmopolitan Globalism (networking emphasis): Anne-Marie Slaughter, “America’s Edge,” orig. Foreign Affairs, Jan. 2009

25. Justice Globalism (critique of present): Kevin Danaher interview, “Globalism and Its Discontents,” orig. Policy.com, 14 Apr. 2000; and Larissa MacFarquhar, “Outside Agitator: Naomi Klein and the New New LeftNew Yorker, 8 Dec. 2008 [now on Klein's own website, www.naomiklein.org]

25. Justice Globalism (ideas for present & future): Deborah James, “Ten Ways to Democratize the Global Economy,” concluding chapter in Kevin Danaher & Roger Burbach, eds., Globalize This!, 2000; George Monbiot, “A Parliament for the PlanetNew Internationalist (Britain), Jan. 2002; and Naomi Klein, “Copenhagen: Seattle Grows UpNation, 11 Nov. 2009

25. Justice Globalism (the movement): David Solnit, “Introduction: The New Radicalism,” pp. xi-xxiv in Solnit, ed., Globalize Liberation, 2004; Tim Costello & Brendan Smith, “World Social Forum: Is Another World Possible?Nation, 13 Feb. 2009; and Geoffrey Pleyers, “WSF 2009: A Generation’s Challenge,” openDemocracy website, 30 Jan. 2009

[Emerging ideology?]. Reinvention-of-Democracy Globalism (“conservative” slant): Daniel A. Bell, “Introduction: One Size Doesn’t Fit All,” in Bell, Beyond Liberal Democracy: Political Thinking for an East Asian Context, 2006

[Emerging ideology?]. Reinvention-of-Democracy Globalism (“liberal” slant): Carolyn Lukensmeyer & Lars Torres, pp. 7-15 [pdf pp. 11-19] in Lukensmeyer & Torres, Public Deliberation: A Manager’s Guide to Citizen Engagement,” IBM Center for the Business of Government booklet, 2006 [theory]; and AmericaSpeaks, “21st Century Town Meeting,” YouTube video, c. 2006 [practice]

[Emerging ideology?]. Reinvention-of-Democracy Globalism (“radical” slant): Joshua Cohen & Archon Fung, “Radical DemocracySwiss Journal of Political Science, Winter 2004 [theory]; and either Part I of B.C. Citizens’ Assembly, “British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly,” YouTube video, 2005, or Parts 2-4 of Silvia Leindecker & Michael Fox, “Beyond Elections Documentary,” YouTube video, c. 2005 [on participatory budgeting in Brazil]

[Emerging ideology?]. Dialogue-of-Civilizations Globalism (from Western political theorists): Fabio Petito, “Dialogue of Civilizations as an Alternative Model for World Order,” Chap. 3 in Michalis Michael & Fabio Petito, eds., Civilizational Dialogue and World Order,” 2009; and Fred Dallmayr, “Dialogue Community as a Promising Path to Global Justice,” speech at the Eighth Rhodes Forum, Island of Rhodes, Greece, 22 Oct. 2010

[Emerging ideology?]. Dialogue-of-Civilizations Globalism (from an Islamic politician): Mohammed Khatami, “From ‘Dialogue’ to the ‘Dialogue of Civilizations,’” pp. xi-xiii in Fred Dallmayr & Abbas Manoochehri, eds., Civilizational Dialogue and Political Thought, 2007

[Emerging ideology?]. Dialogue-of-Civilizations Globalism (from a Chinese historian): Tu Weiming, “Mutual Learning as an Agenda for Social Development,” Tu Weiming website, n.d. [now concluding chapter in Molefi Asante et al., eds., The Global Intercultural Communication Reader, 2007]



26a. Progressivism / Social Democracy (U.S.): William Galston, “The Courage of Our ContradictionsDemocracy Journal, Winter 2010

26a. Progressivism / Social Democracy (Europe): Steven Hill, “The Rise of the European Way,” Chap. 1 in Hill, Europe’s Promise, 2010

26b. Progressivism / Republican Democracy (centrist-liberal version): Richard Reeves & Philip Collins, pp. 9-12 in Reeves & Collins, The Liberal Republic, Demos booklet (Britain), 2009

26b. Progressivism / Republican Democracy (left-liberal version): Stuart White, “Introduction,” in White and Daniel Leighton, eds., Building a Citizen Society: The Emerging Politics of Republican Democracy, 2008

27. Third Way-ism (in utero): Charles Peters, “A Neoliberal’s ManifestoWashington Monthly, May 1983

27. Third Way-ism (in power): Al From et al., first 56 minutes in From et al.,  “President Clinton [Leads] World Leaders in a Roundtable Discussion on the Third Way,” Democratic Leadership Council website, 25 Apr. 1999 [n.b.: this is audiovisual only; alas, the transcript has been removed from the Web]

27. Third Way-ism (fully formulated): Anthony Giddens, “Introduction,” in Giddens, ed., The Global Third Way Debate, 2001; and Giddens, “It’s Time to Give the Third Way a Second ChanceIndependent (Britain), 28 Jun. 2007

28. Communitarianism (critical overview by a supporter): Daniel A. Bell, “The Politics of Community,” section 3 in Bell, “Communitarianism,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website, 22 Jan. 2009

28. Communitarianism (public policies): Amitai Etzioni, “Too Many Rights, Too Few Responsibilities,” orig. in Michael Walzer, ed., Toward a Global Civil Society, 1995 [domestic issues]; and Etzioni, pp. 71-79 in Etzioni, “Sovereignty as Responsibility,” orig. Orbis, Winter 2006 [global issues]

28. Communitarianism (contemporary concerns): Madeleine Bunting, “Introduction,” and Michael Sandel, “We Need a Public Life with Purpose,” pp. 4-8 [pdf pp. 5-9] in Bunting et al., eds., Citizen Ethics in a Time of Crisis, Citizen Ethics Network booklet (Britain), 2010

29. Deliberationism (face-to-face): James Fishkin, “The Nation in a RoomBoston Review, March 2006

29. Deliberationism (via Web): Beth Noveck, “Wiki-GovernmentDemocracy Journal, Winter 2008

29. Deliberationism (in China): Ethan Leib, “The Chinese Communist Party and Deliberative DemocracyJournal of Public Deliberaion, vol. 1, issue 1, 2008



30a. Libertarianism / Pragmatic (a celebration): Brian Doherty, “Libertarianism: Past and Prospects,” Cato Unbound website, 7 Mar. 2007

30a. Libertarianism / Pragmatic (a reconceptualization): Virginia Postrel, “After SocialismReason, Nov. 1999

30b. Libertarianism / Radical (domestic policy): Thomas Woods Jr., “The Right to  Nullify This GovernmentHuman Events, 13 Jul. 2010

30b. Libertarianism / Radical (foreign policy): Justin Raimondo, “US Foreign Policy, Rudyard Kipling, and the Libertarian Theory of the State,” Antiwar.com, 6 Oct. 2009


XI. MULTICULTURALISM (expanded at many viewers' request!)

31a. Liberationism, aka Raw Multiculturalism (polite): Martin Duberman, “In Defense of Identity PoliticsIn These Times, 9 Jul. 2001

31a. Liberationism, aka Raw Multiculturalism (not so polite): bell hooks, “Killing Rage: Militant Resistance,” pp. 8-20 in hooks, Killing Rage, 1995

31a: Liberationism, aka Raw Multiculturalism (logical next step?): Peter Singer, “All Animals Are Equal,” orig. pp. 148-62 in Tom Regan & Peter Singer, eds., Animal Rights and Human Obligations, 1989 [first-generation arguments]; and Singer, “Animal Liberation at 30New York Review of Books, 15 May 2003 [second-generation arguments]

31b. Multiculturalism / Quasi-Separatism (land!): Winona LaDuke, “Voices from White Earth: Gaa-waabaabiganikaag,” E.F. Schumacher Society lecture, Yale University, Oct. 1993

31b. Multiculturalism / Quasi-Separatism (reparations!): Randall Robinson, “Introduction,” in Robinson, The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks, 2000

31b. Multiculturalism / Quasi-Separatism (cultural space!): Michael Warner interviewed by Annamarie Jagose, “Queer World-Making,” Genders website, issue #31, 2000

31c. Multiculturalism / Communal Pluralism (dialogic): Bhikhu Parekh, “What Is Multiculturalism?Seminar magazine (India), Dec. 1999 [condensing portions of Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism, 2000]

31c. Multiculturalism / Communal Pluralism (participatory): Tariq Ramadan interviewed by Oscar Reyes. “Living TogetherRed Pepper (Britain), 1 Sep. 2005

31c. Multiculturalism / Communal Pluralism (hybridist): Gregory Rodriguez, “Mongrel AmericaAtlantic Monthly, Jan. 2003

31d. Multiculturalism / Liberal Pluralism (pragmatic): National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA), pp. 1-10 in “The Economic Impact of Indian Gaming,” NIGA pamphlet, 2009

31d. Multiculturalism / Liberal Pluralism (evolutionary): Andrew Sullivan, “Assimilation and Its MeaningNew Republic, 24 Oct. 2005

31d. Multiculturalism / Liberal Pluralism (rights-based): Will Kymlicka, “Liberal ComplacenciesBoston Review, Oct. 1997

31e. Multicultural Universalism (emphasis on diversity as a conscious choice): David Hollinger, “From Identity to SolidarityDaedalus, Fall 2006

31e. Multicultural Universalism (emphasis on unity in diversity): Jack Donnelly, "Human Rights and the Dialogue among Civilizations," Professor Jack Donnelly's University of Denver website, c. 2002

31e. Multicultural Universalism (emphasis on diversity AS unity): Kwame Appiah, “The Case for ContaminationNew York Times Magazine, 1 Jan. 2006

[Emerging ideology?]. Political Postmodernism (an overview): Steven Besr & Douglas Kellner, “Postmodern Politics and the Battle for the Future,” orig. New Political Science, Sep. 1998

[Emerging ideology?]. Political Postmodernism (a vision): bell hooks, “Postmodern Blackness,” orig. Chap. 3 in hooks, Yearning, 1990

[Emerging ideology?]. Political Postmodernism (a defense): Stanley Fish, “Don’t Blame RelativismThe Responsive Community, Summer 2002



32. Right Nationalism (emphasis on the cosmopolitan threat): Samuel Huntington, “Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite,” orig. National Interest, Spring 2004 [n.b.: highlighting was not in original article]

32. Right Nationalism (emphasis on traditional culture): Geert Wilders, “Speech at the Hudson Institute in New York,” Freedom Party of The Netherlands website, 25 Sep. 2008

32. Right Nationalism (emphasis on sovereignty): Ivan Krastev, “‘Sovereign Democracy,’ Russian-Style,” openDemocracy website, 16 Nov. 2006 [gloss on Nikita Garadya, ed., Sovereignty, 2006, not available in English]

33. Left Nationalism (emphasis on constitutional norms & procedures): Jan-Werner Muller, “Introduction,” pp. 1-14 in Muller, Constitutional Patriotism, 2008

33. Left Nationalism (emphasis on plurality of peoples): Kalypso Nicolaidis, “We, the Peoples of Europe . . .Foreign Affairs, Nov. 2004

33. Left Nationalism (emphasis on national identity construction): Munira Mirza, “Backlash Against Multiculturalism?Spiked online journal (Britain), 2 Apr. 2004 [blunt]; and David Goodhart, “Discomfort of Strangers,” entire essay, Guardian (Britain), 24 Feb. 2004 [anguished]



34. Right Populism (principle): Ron Paul, “An Intellectual Revolution,” speech to the Virginia Tea Party Patriots convention, Richmond VA, 9 Oct. 2010

34. Right Populism (passion): Sarah Palin, “Full Text of Palin’s Resignation Speech,” TPM website, 3 Jul. 2009; and Glenn Beck, “We Surround Them,” YouTube video, orig. Fox News, 13 Feb. 2009

34. Right Populism (savvy): Marco Rubio, speech to the Conservative Political Action Committee conference, Washington DC, 18 Feb. 2010 

35. Left Populism (leadership view): Hugo Chavez, “Speech on Climate Change in Copenhagen,” Venezuela News, Views, and Analysis website, 17 Dec. 2009

35. Left Populism (grassroots view): Carlos Martinez et al., pp. 1-9 & 30-43 in Martinez et al., Venezuela Speaks!, 2009; and Parts 5-7 of Silvia Leindecker & Michael Fox, “Beyond Elections Documentary,” YouTube video, c. 2005 (on Venezuela’s communal councils)

35. Left Populism (in the U.S.): Mike Lux, “A Modern Populist Movement,” Open Left website, 8 Jul. 2010; and Michael Lind, “Can Populism Be Liberal?,” Salon website, 29 Nov. 2009



36a. Christian Conservatism (moderate version): John DiIulio interviewed by John Prendergast, "Keeping Faith," Pennsylvania Gazette, Jan. 2008 [includes an excerpt from DiIulio, Godly Republic, 2007]

36a. Christian Conservatism (militant version): Robert P. George et al., "Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience," First Things online, 20 Nov. 2009

36b. Christian Progressivism (moderate version): Jim Wallis, "Why the Church Is the Conscience of the State," Beliefnet website, Jan. 2008 [excerpted from Wallis, The Great Awakening, 2008]

36b. Christian Progressivism (militant version): Leonardo Boff, “Right Livelihood Award Acceptance Speech,” Right Livelihood Award Foundation website (Sweden), 7 Dec. 2001; and Boff, two articles from the Leonardo Boff website (Brazil) – “A Cry to God for Haiti,” 29 Jan. 2010, and “Domination Cosmology in Crisis,” 30 Jan. 2009 [n.b.: to read an article on Boff’s website, you’ll first have to click on the year it was published, and then click on the title of the article]

37a. Hindu Nationalism (culture): L. K. Advani, “Hindutva” and “Secularism vs. Pseudo-Secularism,” excerpts from Advani, My Country My Life, 2008; and S. Gurumurthy, “Discover India’s Past to Find Its FutureNew Indian Express, 17 Jun. 2008

37a. Hindu Nationalism (economic development): L. K. Advani, “Advaniji on Development and Infrastructure,” excerpts from speech to the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, New Delhi, 3 Jun. 2008; and S. Gurumurthy, “From Swadeshi and Nationalism to Swadeshi and NationalismSeminar (India), Sep. 1998 [now pt. Chap. 19 in Christophe Jaffrelot, ed., Hindu Nationalism, 2007]

37b. Hindu Liberalism (fraught): Gurcharan Das, “The Dilemma of a Liberal Hindu,” speech at the Implementing Pluralism and Democracy Conference, Chicago, 11 Nov. 2005

37b. Hindu Liberalism (aspirational): Balmurli Natrajan, “Searching for a Progressive Hindu/ismTikkun, 14 Aug. 2009

38a. Islamic Reformism (focus on Muslim societies): Ziuddin Sardar interviewed by Mustafa Ahmad, “The ReformistThe News (Karachi), 23 Nov. 2008

38a. Islamic Reformism (focus on the West): Tariq Modood, “Moderate Secularism, Religion as Identity, and Respect for ReligionPolitical Quarterly (Britain), vol. 81, no. 1, 2010

38b. Islamic Radicalism (reasons): Osama bin Laden, "Letter to the American People," Observer (London), 24 Nov. 2002

38b. Islamic Radicalism (passion): Imam Anwar Al-Awlaki interviewed by Al-Qaeda’s “media branch” in Yemen, “2010 Interview, Part One” and “2010 Interview, Part Two,” MEMRI-TV archive, 28 May 2010 [n.b.: these are video webcasts.  If YouTube removes them, try Google under “MEMRI-TV Al-Awlaki 2010”]

39a. Neo-Zionism (Gen-X): Yishai Fleisher interviewed by Sara Lehmann, “We Need to Put the Spirit Back Into the PeopleJewish Press, 10 Feb. 2010; Fleisher, “The Change Place,” Arutz Sheva website, 12 Jun. 2009; and Fleisher, “Proud Jew, Proud Israeli,” same source, 24 Oct. 2008

39a. Neo-Zionism (Gen-Y): Ronen Shoval interviewed by Elliot Resnick, “‘We Need to Have New Ideological Blood in the System,’” Jewish Press, 17 Mar. 2010; and Steven Plaut, “Why the Left Hates Im TirtzuJewish Press, 17 Feb. 2010

39b. Post-Zionism (Israel): Tom Segev interviewed by Suzy Hansen, “Beyond Tribalism,” Salon website, 8 Dec. 2001

39b. Post-Zionism (U.S.): Michael Lerner, “Israel 60 Years LaterTikkun, 11 Jun. 2009

40a. Spiritual Politics / Engaged Buddhism (Burma): Aung San Suu Kyi, “Freedom from Fear,” undelivered Sakharov Prize speech to European Parliament, Strasbourg, France, 10 July 1991 [now chap. 6 in Suu Kyi, Freedom from Fear and Other Writings, ed. Michael Aris, rev. 1995]

40a. Spiritual Politics / Engaged Buddhism (U.S.): bell hooks & Thich Nhat Hanh, “Building a Community of LoveShambhala Sun, Jan. 2000 [now pp. 235-50 in Jennifer Willis, ed., A Lifetime of Peace: Essential Writings by and about Thich Nhat Hanh, 2003]

40b. Spiritual Politics / Transformationalism (vision): David Korten, “Spiritual Awakening, a New Economy, and the End of EmpireTikkun, 25 Feb. 2009

40b . Spiritual Politics / Transformationalism (strategy): Michael Nagler et al., “Principled Nonviolence,” “Strategic Nonviolence,” “‘Work’ vs. Work,” “Constructive Program,” and “Parallel Institutions,” Metta Center for Nonviolence website, c. 2009; and Americ Azevedo, "Deep Nonviolence," Philosopher-at-Large weblog, 23 Apr. 2010



41. Democratic Socialism (mainstream): Gordon Brown, “Speech to the Fabian Society New Year Conference,” PoliticsHome website (Britain), 16 Jan. 2010

41. Democratic Socialism (oppositional): Jon Cruddas, “Compass Summer Lecture,” Compass website (Britain), 9 Sep. 2009

41. Democratic Socialism (aspirational): Tom Hayden & Dick Flacks, “The Port Huron Statement at 40Nation, 18 Jul. 2002

42. Developmental Socialism (from a World Bank dissident): Joseph Stiglitz, “Towards a New Paradigm of Development,” Chap. 4 in John Dunning, ed., Making Globalization Good, 2003

42. Developmental Socialism (from a Chilean economist and a Spanish economist): Andres Velasco, “Foreword,” and Javier Santiso, “Introduction: The Waltzing Paradigms,” in Santiso, Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible, 2006

42. Developmental Socialism (from a Brazilian politician): Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, speech before the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, 29 Jan. 2004 [mostly economics]; and Lula da Silva, speech before the 64th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 23 Sept. 2009 [mostly politics]

43. State Socialism (China’s way): Wang Yu, “Our Way: Building Socialism with Chinese CharacteristicsPolitical Affairs, Jan. 2004 [official]; and Pan Wei, “The Chinese Model of Development,” speech at the Foreign Policy Center, London, 11 Oct. 2007 [unofficial]

43. State Socialism (Cuba’s way): Raul Castro, “Speech at the National Assembly of People’s Power,” Havana Convention Center, 1 Aug. 2009 [official]; and Roger Burbach, “Winds of Change in CubaCounterPunch, 26 Jan. 2009 [unofficial]

43. State Socialism (American aspirants): Bob Avakian, first two sub-heads in Avakian, “A Radically New Kind of State ...Revolution, 5 Mar. 2006 [theory]; and Standing Together to Organize a Revolutionary Movement (STORM), “Summation of Our Experiences,” pp. 5-27 & 42-49 [pdf pp. 7-18 & 26-29] in STORM, Reclaiming Revolution, booklet, 2004 [practice]

44, Neo-Marxism (a Mexican guerrilla's synthesis): Subcomandante Marcos, “The Fourth World War Has BegunLe Monde Diplomatique (Paris), Sep. 1997

44. Neo-Marxism (a Filipino analyst-activist's synthesis): Walden Bello, “Capitalism’s Crisis and Our Response,” speech at the Conference on the Global Crisis, Berlin, 20 Mar. 2009

44. Neo-Marxism (an American analyst-activist's synthesis): Michael Hardt interviewed by Caleb Smith & Enrico Minardi, “The Collaborator and the MultitudeMinnesota Review, issue nos. 61-62, 2004

45. Neo-Georgism (reformist scenario): Alanna Hartzok, “Democracy, Earth Rights and the Next Economy,” E.F. Schumacher Society lecture, Amherst MA, Oct. 2002

45. Neo-Georgism (deep-reformist scenario): Peter Barnes, “Capitalism, the Commons, and Divine Right,” E.F. Schumacher Society lecture, Stockbridge MA, Oct. 2003

45. Neo-Georgism (revolutionary scenario): Michael Hardt, “Politics of the Common,” ZNet website, 6 Jul. 2009

46. Neo-Confucianism (a Sinologist’s view): Daniel A. Bell, “From Marx to ConfuciusDissent, Spring 2007

46. Neo-Confucianism (a Chinese professor’s view): Wang Rui-Chang, “The Rise of Political Confucianism in Contemporary China,” Inside-Out China website, 8 Apr. 2009

46. Neo-Confucianism (the leading exponent’s view): Xujun Eberlein on Jiang Qing, “China: Democracy, or Confucianism?,” China Beat website, 3 Jun. 2008



47. Radical Centrism (vital-centrist stance): John Avlon, pp. 1-21 in Avlon, Independent Nation: How Centrists Can Change American Politics, 2005 edition, orig. 2004

47. Radical Centrism (post-partisan stance): Ted Halstead & Michael Lind, “Introduction: Digital Disjuncture,” pp. 1-29 in Halstead & Lind, The Radical Center, 2001 [after you click on this link, you’ll need to type “Digital Disjuncture” into the search box]

47. Radical Centrism (transpartisan stance): Lawrence Chickering & James Turner, pp. 1-5 and 147-53 in Chickering & Turner, Voice of the People: The Transpartisan Imperative in American Life, 2008; and Michael Ostrolenk interviewed by David Schimke, “America’s Transpartisan FutureUtne Reader, Sep. 2009

48. African Renaissance (from an African political leader): Thabo Mbeke, "The African Renaissance, South Africa and the World," speech at United Nations University, Tokyo, 9 Apr. 1998

48. African Renaissance (from an African professor & mediator): Washington Okumu, “Introduction,” pp. 1-21 in Okumu, The African Renaissance, 2002

48. African Renaissance (from an African minister): Desmond Tutu on the concept of ubuntu, pp. 24-27 in Tutu, God Has a Dream, 2004

49. Personalism (emphasis on individuality): Randall Kennedy, “My Race Problem – and OursAtlantic Monthly, May 1997; and Adam Lent, “The Ethical Is Political,” pp. 57-59 [pdf pp. 58-60] in Madeline Bunting et al., eds., Citizen Ethics in a Time of Crisis, Citizen Ethics Network booklet (Britain), 2010

49. Personalism (emphasis on individual dignity): Robert Fuller, pp. 1-24 in Fuller, Somebodies and Nobodies: Overcoming the Abuse of Rank, 2004

49. Personalism (emphasis on individual awareness & compassion): Martha Nussbaum, “Compassion and Global Responsibility,” commencement address at Georgetown University, Washington DC, 16 May 2003

50. Evolutionism (developmental psychology): Don Beck, “Stages of Social Development,” Center for Human Emergence website, Oct. 2000; and Jeremy Rifkin in conversation with Allan Gregg, "The Empathic Civilization," Ontario public television (Canada), 22 Jun. 2010 [summarizing evolutionary perspective in Rifkin, The Empathic Civilization, 2009.  N.b.: This is audiovisual only]

50. Evolutionism (sociology): Paul Ray & Sherry Anderson, “Introducing the Cultural Creatives” and “Are You a Cultural Creative?,” excerpts from Ray & Anderson, The Cultural Creatives, 2000; and Ronald Inglehart & Christian Welzel, “How Development Leads to Democracy,” orig. Foreign Affairs, Mar. 2009

50. Evolutionism (integral philosophy): Ken Wilber, “Some Thoughts on Integral Politics,” Integral World website, 1999 [now part of Chap. 5 in Wilber, A Theory of Everything, 2000]; and Steve McIntosh, “Integral Politics and the Evolution of Consciousness and CultureTikkun, 10 Jun. 2009



A. Dialogue?, I (within every ideology, there are the dialoguers and there are the violent): Amitai Etzioni, “The Global Importance of Illiberal Moderates,” orig. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Sep. 2006

B. Dialogue?, II (toward mutual understanding): Maggie Herzig & Laura Chasin, Chap. 1 (text pp. 1-4) in Herzig & Chasin, Fostering Dialogue Across Divides, Public Conversations Project booklet, 2006 [n.b.: text pages not aligned with pdf pages]

C. Dialogue?, III (toward better-informed decisions): Joseph Stiglitz, first two-thirds of Stiglitz, “Dialogue and Development,” speech at the Carter Center, Atlanta, Ga., 8 Dec. 2006

D. Dialogue?, IV (toward new options): Mark Gerzon, “”Moving Beyond Debate: Start a Dialogue,” Harvard Business School Working Knowledge website, 22 May 2006

E. Dialogue?, V (toward consensus): Tim Hartnett, “The Basics of Consensus Decision-Making,” adapted from Hartnett, Consensus-Oriented Decision Making, 2011 [a defense]; and Jim Rough, “Transforming the Public Conversation,” orig. Center for Wise Democracy website, c. 2004 [a vision]



A. Beyond Ideology?, I (facts): Terence Dunworth et al., “The Case for Evidence-Based Policy,” Urban Institute website, rev. 2008

B. Beyond Ideology?, II (feelings): Dominique Moisi, “The Clash of Emotions,” orig. Foreign Affairs, Jan. 2007

C. Beyond Ideology?, III (courage): Asha Hagi (Somalia), “Right Livelihood Award Acceptance Speech,” Right Livelihood Award Foundation website (Sweden), 8 Dec. 2008

D. Beyond Ideology?, IV (jazz and the blues): Cornel West interviewed by Astra Taylor, in Taylor, Examined Life, documentary film, 2008 [n.b.: this is audiovisual only]

E. Beyond Ideology?, V (just do it): Paul Hawken, pp. 1-26 in Hawken, Blessed Unrest, 2007



A. No Ideology, No Movement: Mark Satin, “Is There an Invisible and Exceptionally Life-Loving Political Movement in Our Midst? Radical Middle online newsletter, Oct. 2007 [critique of Hawken, immediately above]

B. Toward an Ideology of Compassionate Presence: Mark Satin, “What the Poor Ned NowRadical Middle online newsletter, Mar. 2008

C. Ideology Is Not Enough: Mark Satin et al., “Participants Agonize Over the Death and Life of the [New World Alliance] Radical Middle online newsletter, Jan. 2008






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